Padam Prasad Paudel

I am a Agricultural Engineer

Padam Prasad Paudel

Agricultural Engineer, free WRITER, designer(web,graphic,templates,logo), open end person.


My Professional Skills

Agricultural Engineering: Planning, Designing, estimating and managing Agri Engineering Project
Deskwork: Designing(Web, Graphics), Programming (C, HTML, CSS JavaScript), Software (Arc-Gis, AutoCAD, SolidWorks )
Research: Sampling, surveying, data collecting, analyzing, modeling and interpreting
Writing, Typing, Editing, Presenting:technical and Non-Technical Article, reports, literature)

Agricultural Engineering's work 85%
Writing, typing, editing 70%
Designing, Programming and softwares 60%
Research 50%

Agri-Engineering Works

Planning, Designing, estimating and managingAgri-Engineering projectsrelatedto
·Farm field, Farm building, Farm Tools & Machinery
·Water management: Irrigation, Groundwater exploitation
·Soil and Water conservation: watersheds, Forests & Lands
·Renewable Energy: Bio, Solar, Micro-hydro & Wind Power
·Post-harvest and Food & dairy processing
·Rural development: Green Roads, water supply, sanitation & infrastructure
·Agricultural Extension
·Meteorology, Hydrology, climate change
·Refrigeration, cold storage, preservation
·Agronomy and Horticulture

·Farm (Precise, Smart, community, integrated)

Writing, typing, editing

·Article writing
ØNormal article writing
ØResearch article writing
·Report writing
ØNormal report writing
ØScientific report writing
·Proposal writing
·Context writing
·Nepali &English literature(poem, story, essay, novel)
·Typing & Editing
ØEnglish &Nepali

Computer Technology

Ø web designing: Domain registration, Hosting, SEO, WordPress, Joomla, Blogger
Ø template designing
Ø graphic designing: Photoshop, Illustrator InDesign, Lightroom, CorelDraw, AutoCAD
Ø logo designing
Multimedia and Animation
Android development
Programming (C, C++, Java, PHP, MySQL, HTML, CSS)
Typing/editing, Data entering, Data management
Online Publishing, Marketing & Advertising

Research and Study

Sampling, surveying, data collecting, analyzing, modeling and interpreting

Soft work

Arc-Gis, AutoCAD, SolidWorks

Social Works

Co-Ordinating, Co-operating, Volunteering, Acting as/with Leader

completed project
design award
facebook like
current projects
  • Navigating Nepal's Battle with Natural Disasters: Floods and Droughts

    Navigating Nepal's Battle with Natural Disasters: Floods and Droughts

    Dry spell (drought) at transplanting and tillering time; and Inundation (flooding) at the crop harvesting time.
    Dry spell at transplanting and tillering time; and Inundation at the crop harvesting time.


    Nepal, nestled in the lap of the Himalayas, faces an array of natural and human-induced disasters with increasing frequency and intensity. As one of the world's highest-risk countries for various types of disasters, Nepal's geographic and societal fabric constantly grapples with the looming threat of calamities. While volcanic eruptions are not a concern, the nation experiences a wide range of disasters, including floods, landslides, fires, epidemics, avalanches, and more. This article will delve into two major natural hazards: floods and droughts, exploring their impact and historical occurrences in Nepal.

    Floods: A Frequent and Devastating Hazard

    Floods are a recurrent and highly destructive natural hazard in Nepal, particularly during the monsoon season. With over 6,000 rivers and rivulets coursing through its terrain, many originating from snow-fed Himalayan ranges, the nation's topography amplifies the intensity of floods. Notable snow-fed rivers like the Koshi, Narayani, Karnali, and Mahakali surge during monsoon, causing substantial damage to villages, farmlands, and inhabitants within their basins. The steep, rugged terrain and high-angle slopes, coupled with complex geology, make Nepal susceptible to flooding and landslides during the monsoon. Historical data highlights significant flood events, including the 1978 Tinao basin flood, the 1980 Koshi River flood, and the devastating 1993 Kulekhani cloud burst, which claimed 1,336 lives. Nepal ranks 30th globally in terms of flood hazard (UNDP/BCPR, 2004). Notable recent flood disasters occurred in 2008, 2014, 2017, 2021, and 2022, leaving a trail of destruction in their wake.

    Some of the most devastating floods in Nepal over the past 23 years include:

    1. - 2001: Sarlahi flood (198 lives lost, 105 injured)
    2. - 2005: Kanchanpur flood due to monsoon rains
    3. - 2008: Koshi River flood in August and Western Nepal floods in September
    4. - 2014: Severe flooding affecting 17 districts, causing extensive damage to infrastructure and crops
    5. - 2017: 35 districts affected, with 4 lakh people displaced due to heavy seasonal rain-triggered floods, with Saptari hit the hardest
    6. - 2021: Significant flood damage in Melamchi Bazaar
    7. - 2021 and 2022: Floods and inundation during the paddy harvesting season causing crop damage in western Nepal
    8. - 2022: Darchula flood following heavy rainfall in September

    Drought: A Pervasive Challenge

    While floods are a pressing concern, drought is another frequently occurring hazard, particularly in certain regions of Nepal. Parts of the Terai, mid-lands, and Trans-Himalayan belts are susceptible to drought, with the lack of irrigation facilities exacerbating its effects. Irregular monsoonic rainfall in the mountainous region of Nepal is a significant factor contributing to drought. Notably damaging droughts occurred in 1972, 1979, and 1994, affecting crops, livestock, and people. Prolonged dry spells and drought-like situations occur yearly, primarily due to irregular and insufficient monsoon rainfall.

    Some recent instances of drought and dry spells include:

    • - 2008/2009: Severe drought, resulting in a 15% reduction in national production of major food crops such as barley and wheat.
    • - 2015: A severe summer drought causing food insecurity in western Nepal, impacting over 80% of the population.
    • - 2021: A dry spell contributing to widespread wildfires.
    • - 2022/23: Prolonged dry spell in western Nepal during the mid-monsoon season.


    Nepal's struggle with natural disasters, particularly floods and droughts, underscores the urgency of disaster preparedness and resilience-building in the country. The devastating consequences of these events, as evident in the loss of lives and property, highlight the need for proactive measures and international cooperation to address these challenges. Nepal's unique geographical and climatic features demand adaptive solutions that can mitigate the impact of such disasters and support the affected communities in their path to recovery.

  • Nepal's Diverse Seasons and Their Impact on Agriculture

    Agro-meteorological station at Khajura, Nepalgunj, Banke, Nepal
    Agrometeorological Station, Khajura, Nepal. Pic: by author

    Nepal's Diverse Seasons and Their Impact on Agriculture


    Nepal is a land of incredible natural diversity, and this diversity extends to its seasons, which play a crucial role in the country's agriculture. With a unique blend of meteorological, cultural, and agricultural factors, Nepal experiences four distinct seasons, each with its own significance and impact on farming practices. In this article, we'll explore the different seasons in Nepal, their alignment with the Hindu calendar, and their influence on agricultural activities.

    The Four Seasons of Nepal:

    1. Rainy or Monsoon (June – September):
       - The monsoon season brings heavy rainfall and lush green landscapes. It's a time of replenishing water resources, vital for agriculture.
       - Major crops: Monsoon paddy, millet, and maize.

    2. Autumn or Post Monsoon (October – November):
       - Post-monsoon is characterized by clear skies and pleasant weather. This season is ideal for harvesting and planting winter crops.
       - Major crops: Wheat and oilseeds.

    3. Winter (December – February):
       - Winter in Nepal sees lower temperatures, especially in the hilly regions. This season requires specific crops suited to cold weather.
       - Major crops: Wheat, legumes, and cold-tolerant vegetables.

    4. Summer or Spring or Pre-monsoon (March/April – May/June):
       - The pre-monsoon period welcomes warmer temperatures, and farmers prepare for the monsoon planting season.
       - Major crops: Spring paddy, vegetables, and legumes.

    Seasons in Nepal According to the Hindu Calendar:

    In Nepal, the traditional Hindu calendar plays a significant role in cultural and agricultural activities. The alignment of seasons with the Hindu calendar provides a deeper connection between nature and daily life. The seasons in the Hindu calendar are as follows:

    1. Basanta (Spring): Chaitra-Baishakh
    2. Grishma (Summer): Jestha-Asar
    3. Barsa (Rainy): Asar - Bhadra
    4. Sharad (Autumn): Asoj - Kartik
    5. Hemanta (Pre-winter): Mangsir-Poush
    6. Shishir (Winter): Magh-Falgun

    Agricultural Seasons in Nepal:

    The diverse seasons in Nepal significantly influence agricultural practices. These seasons align with the Hindu calendar and affect crop selection and cultivation. The agricultural seasons are as follows:

    1. Rainy (Barse or Barkhe or Kharif):
       - Corresponds with the monsoon season, making it ideal for paddy cultivation.
       - Additional crops: Millet, maize, and other rain-dependent crops.

    2. Winter (Hiude or Rabi):
       - The post-monsoon and winter seasons are excellent for growing cold-tolerant crops.
       - Major crops: Wheat and oilseeds.

    3. Spring (Basante):
       - Spring is a transition period, and it provides opportunities for cultivating various crops.
       - Major crops: Spring paddy, vegetables, and legumes.

    Categorizing Growing Seasons:

    Growing seasons in Nepal are categorized based on monthly precipitation and temperature. The criteria for these divisions are as follows:

    - Hot Month: When the average temperature is above 20°C.
    - Cold Month: When the mean temperature falls between 0-10°C.
    - Warm Month: When the mean temperature is between 15-20°C.


    Nepal's rich cultural traditions and diverse climatic conditions have led to a unique system of seasons that deeply influence agricultural practices. Understanding the different growing seasons and their alignment with the Hindu calendar is essential for farmers, as it allows them to make informed decisions about crop selection and planting times. This synergy between nature, culture, and agriculture highlights the importance of seasonal knowledge in Nepal's farming communities.
  • Agricultural Mechanization and Custom Hiring Centre Concept in Nepal

    Mechanization Overview (Introduction, Objective)

    Modernization is an appropriate use of new technology approved by science that should be suitable to all place, acceptable to all, fast, cheap, convenient, reliable flexible and impacting positive impression to society. Commercialization is use of modern technology to provide goods and service in public market for the purpose of profit and service. Agricultural Mechanization is utilization of Agricultural Engineering principle and theories for the modern and commercialized development of Agriculture. It includes foods crops, grasses and feed for animal, Rubber, fiber and cotton production, bio-fuel plant production, conservation, processing, transportation, storage, and distribution works. In this way, simple machinery to modern machinery and technology are used to make the simple, fast, cheap, convenient and efficient the agricultural operation over physical works.  

    Purpose of Agricultural Mechanization

    • Amplify energy utilization
    • Reduce the cost, drudgery and time investment over traditional way of farming
    • Perform agricultural works in time, with low investment and in qualitative way
    • Improve productivity and qualitative production
    • To perform the works that are impossible through human and animal power
    • Development of employment opportunity and entrepreneurship
    • Opens the door for industrialization and prosperity of rural sector
    • Improve the lifestyle of farmers, importer, consumers and traders

    There are diverse use of different machinery from land preparation to harvesting and up to post-harvest processing plant. Laser land leveler, heavy and soft tillage equipment, seeding and transplanting machinery, irrigating, weeding, spraying, fertilizer broadcasting equipment, harvesting threshing, storage packaging, processing like milling, hulling, expelling etc equipment are used in food crop cultivation. Like in agronomic sector there is broad use of agricultural machinery in horticulture and animal husbandry. Like feed making for cow, poultry, fodder making, milking device, shade clearing, fur cutting etc device are used in Animal husbandry. And trimming, inter-culturing, special harvesting device are used in horticulture sector. 

    Farmers need and problem facing farmers

    As Mechanization is the solution for following points, that it introduces why mechanization is.
    • Scarcity of labor in peak season, Youth immigration to abroad.
    • Low production and productivity
    • Drudgery and costly of traditional way of farming
    • Cannot prepare land in time, and difficult to do agriculture works
    • Increasing amount of barrel land 
    • Not caring of economic analysis profit and loss,
    • Not informed of technology and not in reach of all
    • Repulsion of youth from agriculture
    • Noncompetitive with the national and international market
    • For qualitative production and reduce production investment
    • Need of women and adult friendly agricultural technology
    Even the mechanization is need of each farmer, they have not been adopting it due to of facing several problem.
    • High Purchase values of machinery,
    • Low land holding capacity,
    • Lack of technological knowledge,
    • Inadequate expert manpower to service the implements and mechanics,
    • Difficulties for repairing and maintaining of farm equipment and implements,
    • Lack of labors
    • Hard to maximum utilize the machine and get payback of machine investment.
    To overcome these problems, they should think in combine form like a community can purchase a machine and operate it with frugality.

    Traditional way of Maize planting in hilly region of Nepal.  Photo: by BTL   

    Technical support from any technical organization 

    In the context of what technical organization can do for farmers group, custom hiring or any service providers, the following points may clarify the technical support.
    • Provide necessary training to operate, repair and maintenance of machinery.
    • Consultation services to select and purchase.
    • Trial and test of new machinery.
    • Perform different research and recommend the best way of cultivation.
    • Provide necessary information about different service providers, traders, seller.
    • Support them to strength their financial assurance.
    Modern way of Tillage Operation in hilly region of Nepal.  Photo: by BTL #Minitiller

    Custom Hiring /Service provider/ Traders/ Retailer service and its sectors

    It is an important mechanism through which most small holder and marginal farmers also can access the services of agricultural Machinery. In which, all the necessary machinery are purchased in a common center established by community, groups of farmers, governmental agency, or private sector acting as service provider, traders or retailer service provider. That the machinery center is commonly known as Custom Hiring Center (CHC0 and the service is called Custom Hiring Services (CHS). It operates it’s machinery is affordable price rate (per unit time or per unit land). They may operate machinery in different price for member of farmers group and outside the group. Aggregately, it Offers prospect for facilitating rapid mechanization of agricultural system in the region.

    Machinery Hiring due to
    • Decline of size of land ownership
    • Not have capability to purchase all type of machinery
    • Lack of technical knowledge and skill
    • Cannot self-utilize and get profit from a machine
    • To earn more income
    • Convenient to make hirable through person, group or any governmental agency.
    • Role of custom hiring center
    • to promote and exhibit new modern technology
    • Introducing new technology and make available to farmers, members and customer
    • Identify and demand the machinery suitable for local community
    • Conduct required training of modern agricultural technology, skill build up training, vocational training
    • Conduct awareness campaigning using modern information and communication technology
    • improve lifestyle of members, farmers and customers by increasing production and income.



    Machinery and access


    Land preparation and tillage

    Mini tiller, Power tiller, Tractor, Laser land leveler, Rotavator, Disc plough, MB plough, cultivator etc


    Seeding and transplanting

    Seed Drills, Planter, Rice transplanter, Happy seeder, Dribbler


    Fertilizer broadcasting

    Top dresser, Spreader, EW Bags



    Surface and submersible pumps, solar irrigation pumps, Diesel / petrol / Kerosene pumps, axial flow pumps etc



    Manual weeder, Power weeder, minitiller weeder, 4WT weeders



    Manual Knapsack sprayer, compression sprayer, pedal sprayer, solar and charge operated backpack sprayer



    Mower, mini/2WT/4WT Reaper, combine harvester, mini combine harvester, brush cutter



    Pedal Thresher, Open drum thresher, 2WT/4WT axial flow thresher, Multicrop thresher etc


    Hey management

    Straw reaper, Bellor, Forest Harvester, Mulcher etc



    2WT/4WT Trolley


    Cleaning, Grading

    Seed Cleaner, Grader, Seed cleaner cum grader



    Different mobile and stationary Dryers equipment



    Disc/hammer Mills, huller, sheller, oil extraction mills,

    Do You Want To Hire Me?

    If you have any work related to my field, expertization, knowledge and experience then do not overthink, give me a chance and observe result.


    Tribhuvan University

    Institute of Engineering

    Purwanchal Campus

    Dharan-08, Sunsari, Nepal



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