• Agricultural Mechanization and Custom Hiring Centre Concept in Nepal

    Mechanization Overview (Introduction, Objective)

    Modernization is an appropriate use of new technology approved by science that should be suitable to all place, acceptable to all, fast, cheap, convenient, reliable flexible and impacting positive impression to society. Commercialization is use of modern technology to provide goods and service in public market for the purpose of profit and service. Agricultural Mechanization is utilization of Agricultural Engineering principle and theories for the modern and commercialized development of Agriculture. It includes foods crops, grasses and feed for animal, Rubber, fiber and cotton production, bio-fuel plant production, conservation, processing, transportation, storage, and distribution works. In this way, simple machinery to modern machinery and technology are used to make the simple, fast, cheap, convenient and efficient the agricultural operation over physical works.  

    Purpose of Agricultural Mechanization

    • Amplify energy utilization
    • Reduce the cost, drudgery and time investment over traditional way of farming
    • Perform agricultural works in time, with low investment and in qualitative way
    • Improve productivity and qualitative production
    • To perform the works that are impossible through human and animal power
    • Development of employment opportunity and entrepreneurship
    • Opens the door for industrialization and prosperity of rural sector
    • Improve the lifestyle of farmers, importer, consumers and traders

    There are diverse use of different machinery from land preparation to harvesting and up to post-harvest processing plant. Laser land leveler, heavy and soft tillage equipment, seeding and transplanting machinery, irrigating, weeding, spraying, fertilizer broadcasting equipment, harvesting threshing, storage packaging, processing like milling, hulling, expelling etc equipment are used in food crop cultivation. Like in agronomic sector there is broad use of agricultural machinery in horticulture and animal husbandry. Like feed making for cow, poultry, fodder making, milking device, shade clearing, fur cutting etc device are used in Animal husbandry. And trimming, inter-culturing, special harvesting device are used in horticulture sector. 

    Farmers need and problem facing farmers

    As Mechanization is the solution for following points, that it introduces why mechanization is.
    • Scarcity of labor in peak season, Youth immigration to abroad.
    • Low production and productivity
    • Drudgery and costly of traditional way of farming
    • Cannot prepare land in time, and difficult to do agriculture works
    • Increasing amount of barrel land 
    • Not caring of economic analysis profit and loss,
    • Not informed of technology and not in reach of all
    • Repulsion of youth from agriculture
    • Noncompetitive with the national and international market
    • For qualitative production and reduce production investment
    • Need of women and adult friendly agricultural technology
    Even the mechanization is need of each farmer, they have not been adopting it due to of facing several problem.
    • High Purchase values of machinery,
    • Low land holding capacity,
    • Lack of technological knowledge,
    • Inadequate expert manpower to service the implements and mechanics,
    • Difficulties for repairing and maintaining of farm equipment and implements,
    • Lack of labors
    • Hard to maximum utilize the machine and get payback of machine investment.
    To overcome these problems, they should think in combine form like a community can purchase a machine and operate it with frugality.

    Traditional way of Maize planting in hilly region of Nepal.  Photo: by BTL   

    Technical support from any technical organization 

    In the context of what technical organization can do for farmers group, custom hiring or any service providers, the following points may clarify the technical support.
    • Provide necessary training to operate, repair and maintenance of machinery.
    • Consultation services to select and purchase.
    • Trial and test of new machinery.
    • Perform different research and recommend the best way of cultivation.
    • Provide necessary information about different service providers, traders, seller.
    • Support them to strength their financial assurance.
       
    Modern way of Tillage Operation in hilly region of Nepal.  Photo: by BTL #Minitiller

    Custom Hiring /Service provider/ Traders/ Retailer service and its sectors

    It is an important mechanism through which most small holder and marginal farmers also can access the services of agricultural Machinery. In which, all the necessary machinery are purchased in a common center established by community, groups of farmers, governmental agency, or private sector acting as service provider, traders or retailer service provider. That the machinery center is commonly known as Custom Hiring Center (CHC0 and the service is called Custom Hiring Services (CHS). It operates it’s machinery is affordable price rate (per unit time or per unit land). They may operate machinery in different price for member of farmers group and outside the group. Aggregately, it Offers prospect for facilitating rapid mechanization of agricultural system in the region.

    Machinery Hiring due to
    • Decline of size of land ownership
    • Not have capability to purchase all type of machinery
    • Lack of technical knowledge and skill
    • Cannot self-utilize and get profit from a machine
    • To earn more income
    • Convenient to make hirable through person, group or any governmental agency.
    • Role of custom hiring center
    • to promote and exhibit new modern technology
    • Introducing new technology and make available to farmers, members and customer
    • Identify and demand the machinery suitable for local community
    • Conduct required training of modern agricultural technology, skill build up training, vocational training
    • Conduct awareness campaigning using modern information and communication technology
    • improve lifestyle of members, farmers and customers by increasing production and income.

    S.N.

    Activities

    Machinery and access

    a.       

    Land preparation and tillage

    Mini tiller, Power tiller, Tractor, Laser land leveler, Rotavator, Disc plough, MB plough, cultivator etc

    b.       

    Seeding and transplanting

    Seed Drills, Planter, Rice transplanter, Happy seeder, Dribbler

    c.       

    Fertilizer broadcasting

    Top dresser, Spreader, EW Bags

    d.       

    Irrigation

    Surface and submersible pumps, solar irrigation pumps, Diesel / petrol / Kerosene pumps, axial flow pumps etc

    e.       

    Weeding

    Manual weeder, Power weeder, minitiller weeder, 4WT weeders

    f.       

    Spraying

    Manual Knapsack sprayer, compression sprayer, pedal sprayer, solar and charge operated backpack sprayer

    g.       

    Harvesting

    Mower, mini/2WT/4WT Reaper, combine harvester, mini combine harvester, brush cutter

    h.       

    Threshing

    Pedal Thresher, Open drum thresher, 2WT/4WT axial flow thresher, Multicrop thresher etc

    i.       

    Hey management

    Straw reaper, Bellor, Forest Harvester, Mulcher etc

    j.       

    Transporting

    2WT/4WT Trolley

    k.       

    Cleaning, Grading

    Seed Cleaner, Grader, Seed cleaner cum grader

    l.       

    Drying

    Different mobile and stationary Dryers equipment

    m.       

    Processing

    Disc/hammer Mills, huller, sheller, oil extraction mills,


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